Руководство по обозначению направления открытия окон и дверей
|Время для завершения|
|0.18 и выше|
This tutorial shows how to place Arch Windows and Doors in a building model, how to display them as open in the 3D view, and how to create a 2D drawing (plan and elevation projection) for the model. It uses the Draft Workbench, the Arch Workbench, and the TechDraw Workbench.
Common tools used are: Draft Grid, Draft Snap, Draft Wire, Arch Wall, Arch Window, Arch SectionPlane, and TechDraw ArchView.
See also the following page for some videos on how to work with windows and doors.
1. Open FreeCAD, create a new empty document, and switch to the Arch Workbench.
2. Make sure your units are set correctly in the menu Edit → Preferences → General → Units. For example,
MKS (m/kg/s/degree) is good for dealing with distances in a typical building; moreover, set the number of decimals to
4, to consider even the smallest fractions of a meter.
3. Use the Draft ToggleGrid button to show a grid with enough resolution. You can change the grid appearance in the menu Edit → Preferences → Draft → Grid and snapping → Grid. Set lines at every
50 mm, with major lines every
20 lines (every meter), and
1000 lines in total (the grid covers an area of 50 m x 50 m).
4. Zoom out of the 3D view if you are too close to the grid.
Now we are ready to create a simple building with closed walls, two doors and two windows.
5. Use the Draft Wire tool to create a closed wire. Go counterclockwise.
- 5.1. First point in (0, 0, 0); in the dialog enter 0 m Enter, 0 m Enter, 0 m Enter.
- 5.2. Second point in (3, 0, 0). Press X to constrain the movement to the X axis; enter the value 3 m Enter.
- 5.3. Third point in (3, 4, 0). Press Y to constrain the movement to the Y axis; enter the value 4 m Enter.
- 5.4. Fourth point in (0, 4, 0). Press X to constrain the movement to the X axis; enter the value - 3 m Enter.
- 5.5. Press O to close the Wire, and close the tool.
- 5.6. In the number pad press 0 to get an axonometric view of the model.
- Note: the points can also be defined with the mouse pointer by choosing intersections on the grid, with the help of the Draft Snap toolbar and the Draft Grid method.
6. Select the
DWire and change the property ДанныеMake Face to
7. Select the
DWire and click the Arch Wall tool; the Wall is immediately created with a default width (thickness) of 0.2 m, and height of 3 m.
- Note: if the property ДанныеMake Face of
true, this step would create a solid block, instead of using only the contour of
Base wire for the wall; it is a closed wire that doesn't make a face
Wall constructed from the wire
Размещение окон и дверей
8. Click the Arch Window tool; as preset select
Simple door, and change the height to 2 m.
- 8.1. Change the snapping to Draft Midpoint, and try selecting the bottom edge of the frontal wall; rotate the standard view as necessary to help you pick the edge and not the wall face; when the midpoint is active, click to place the door.
- 8.2. Click the Arch Window tool again, and place another door, but this time in the midpoint of the rear wall; rotate the standard view as necessary.
Snapping to the midpoint of the bottom edge of the wall to place the door
9. Click the Arch Window tool; as preset select
Open 1-pane, and change the
Sill height to 1 m.
- 9.1. Keep the snapping to Draft Midpoint, and try selecting the lower edge of the left side wall; rotate the standard view as necessary to help you pick the edge and not the wall face; when the midpoint is active, click to place the window.
- Note: the
Sill heightis the distance from the floor to the lower edge of the element. For doors the
Sill heightis usually 0 m as doors are normally touching the floor; on the other hand, windows have a usual separation of 0.5 m to 1.5 m from the floor.
- 9.2. Click the Arch Window tool again, and place another window, but this time in the midpoint of the right wall; rotate the standard view as necessary. This time make the window's width (length) 1.5 m, and again make the
Sill height1 m.
Snapping to the midpoint of the bottom edge of the wall to place the window
- Note: the
Sill heightparameter can only be set when initially creating the window with a preset. Once the window is inserted, modify its placement by editing the ДанныеPosition vector
[x, y, z]of the underlying Sketcher Sketch.
- 9.3. Move the
Window001a bit higher. Select the underlying
Sketch003, and change its ДанныеPosition from
[3.1 m, 2.0 m, 1.0 m]to
[3.1 m, 2.0 m, 1.6 m]. The entire
Window001should move up. The wall may still show an opening in the previous position; if this happens, right click the
Mark to recompute, and then press Ctrl+R to recompute the model.
Wall built with doors and windows
Note: when placing a window or a door with a preset, hover the element over the Arch Wall, and wait for the element to rotate so that it is parallel to that wall. Aim for the bottom edge of the wall, and use the
Sill height to adjust the distance from the floor. If this is difficult, use the Draft Near snapping mode of the Draft Snap toolbar to insert the element anywhere on the face of the wall, and then adjust its ДанныеPosition manually as described above. Having many Draft Snap modes active at the same time may cause issues with placing the element, so try with only one option at a time.
Note 2: occasionally the window may be placed outside the Arch Wall; as long as the element is parallel to that wall, you should be able to correct the position manually.
Указание направления открытия дверей
10. In the tree view select
Door, and press Space, or change the property ВидVisibility to
11. Double click
Door in the tree view to start editing it.
- 11.1. Inside the
Window elementsframe there are two panes,
- Note: with a simple door preset there are two wires,
Wire1, and two components,
Door. A custom designed Arch Door may have more wires and components.
- 11.2. Click on
Door, and click the Edit button. This shows the properties of the
- 11.3. In the 3D view, select only one vertical edge in the visible sketch of the door, then click the Get selected edge button. The button should change to an edge name, for example, Edge8.
- 11.4. Change the
Opening modeto Arc 90, or any other option.
- 11.5. Click the +Create/update component button, and then Close to finish editing the door. The sketch may become hidden again.
Dialog to edit a window or a door
Dialog to edit the components that make a window or a door
Vertical edge of sketch selected as hinge for a door
Door, and give the property ДанныеOpening a value of 45. The solid panel of the door should open to the inside of the building.
Door, and change the property ДанныеSymbol Elevation to
true; the tip of the created wire indicates which side of the door opens; this is easier to see if the viewport changes to front view. Change the property ДанныеSymbol Plan to
true; a circular arc should indicate the extent of the door's swing; this is easier to see if the viewport changes to top view.
14. Repeat the steps with
Door001 and the underlying
Sketch001 to make the door open 75 degrees to the inside of the building. Also enable the elevation and plan symbols.
Property view of the door to change Opening value, Symbol elevation, Symbol plan, and other options
Door with opening elevation symbol, front view
Door with plan symbol, top view
Указание направления открытия окон
15. In the tree view select
Window, and press Space, or change the property ВидVisibility to
16. Double click
Window in the tree view to start editing it.
- 16.1. Click on the
InnerFramecomponent, and click the Edit button.
- 16.2. In the 3D view, select only one vertical edge of
Sketch002. The wires representing
InnerFrameare very close to each other, so zoom in as close as possible to the sketch to select the appropriate wire. Then click the Get selected edge button. The button should change to an edge name, for example, Edge12.
- Note: when there are many solids on the screen that it becomes difficult to select only one edge, switch to wireframe mode to remove the faces of those solid objects, and see only the wires, edges, and contours.
- 16.3. Change the
Arc 90 inv, or any other option.
Window, and give the property ДанныеOpening a value of 45. The inner frame containing the transparent glass should open to the inside of the building.
Window, and change the property ДанныеSymbol Elevation to
true; the tip of the created wire indicates which side of the window opens; this is easier to see if the viewport changes to left side view. Change the property ДанныеSymbol Plan to
true; a circular arc should indicate the extent of the window's swing; this is easier to see if the viewport changes to top view.
19. Repeat the steps with
Window001 and the underlying
Sketch003 to make the window open 75 degrees. Also show the elevation and plan symbols. In this case, don't pick a vertical wire of the
InnerFrame as hinge, but pick the top horizontal wire. This means that this window will open differently from the other window. The elevation symbol will be better seen from a right side view. The plan symbol will be better seen from the front view; however, since the wall is obstructing the view, you can change its ВидTransparency to a value such as 85 to see through it; alternatively you can also change its ВидDisplay Mode to
Wireframe to show only its edges.
Horizontal edge of sketch selected as hinge for a window
Elevation and plan symbols for all elements, axonometric view
Elevation and plan symbols for all elements, top view
Создание плана помещения
20. Still in the Arch Workbench, select all components in the tree view, the Arch Wall, the two Arch Windows, and the two Arch Doors, then use the Arch SectionPlane tool to create a
Note: change the property ДанныеArrow size of the section plane to a larger value, for example,
200 mm, so that the direction of the section is clearly visible in the 3D viewport.
Section plane cutting through solid objects, including walls, doors, and windows
21. Change to the TechDraw Workbench and insert a new page with the TechDraw PageDefault tool; a new
Page object is created, and the view switches to this page. The page inserted is a standard A4 sheet in landscape orientation, with a basic frame around it. Use the TechDraw PageTemplate tool if you need to create a new page using a particular SVG template.
Section, and use the TechDraw ArchView tool to create an
ArchView object in the page. Most probably the new object won't be visible in the page because it has a very large scale of
1, that is, 1:1. This means that every meter in the 3D view is shown as a meter in the page view; since the page is only 0.297 m x 0.210 m in size, most features are too big to fit in this page at their natural scale.
23. Select this
ArchView object, and change the property ДанныеScale to
0.02, which is equivalent to 1:50, a scale suitable for typical buildings. This means every meter in the 3D view will be shown as 20 mm in the page. The object should appear in the center of the page, and can be moved to a better position on the left side. The two doors should look like they are open, but only the left window should look open. The reason the right window doesn't appear in the projection is that the plane defined by
Section does not cut through this right window.
Section plane cutting through solid objects, including walls, doors, and windows
24. Switch back to the Arch Workbench. In the tree view select all components again, and use the Arch SectionPlane tool to create a second
- 24.1. Select
Section001and change the property ДанныеPosition to
[1.5 m, 2.0 m, 1.8 m]. This second plane does cut through all Arch objects.
- 24.2. Switch back to the TechDraw Workbench. Select
Section001, use the TechDraw ArchView tool to create
ArchView001, and set ДанныеScale to
0.02. The new view in the TechDraw page now shows all openings in the Arch Wall produced by doors and windows.
Note: set ДанныеAll On to
true for TechDraw ArchView objects so that all elements cut by the plane are visible in the page, regardless of their visibility state in the 3D viewport. The option ДанныеShow Fill can also be set to
true to draw a shade on the solids that were cut by the section plane.
Section view of the building, with a second plane cut, A4 sheet, scale 1:50
Making an elevation projection of the building
25. Go back to the Arch Workbench. In the tree view, select all components, the Arch Wall, the two Arch Windows, and the two Arch Doors, then use the Arch SectionPlane tool to create a third
- 25.1. Rotate
Section002, so that it cuts vertically through the building. Change the properties ДанныеAxis to
[1, 0, 0], and ДанныеAngle to
- 25.2. Change the ДанныеPosition to
[1.5 m, -1 m, 1.5 m], so that the plane is in front of the building.
Section planes that cut or look at the building and the solid objects
26. Go back to the TechDraw Workbench, and use the TechDraw ArchView tool on
Section002; remember to adjust the scale to
0.02 (1:50). Change ДанныеRotation to
-90 to correct the appearance of the projections. Arrange
ArchView002 next to the other views in the page. This third projection looks at the building from the front.
Section view of the building, two top views, and one elevation view, A4 sheet, scale 1:50
Взаимодействие между верстаками Arch и TechDraw
As of the time of writing of this document (FreeCAD 0.18, November 2018), the TechDraw Workbench can only display in its pages what the Arch Workbench exports as SVG. This means that the appearance of the elements included within the Arch SectionPlane tool, and displayed by the TechDraw ArchView tool, is controlled by the Arch Workbench.
The TechDraw Workbench only has minimal control over how it displays those Arch SectionPlane (
ArchView) objects. Therefore, bug reports and feature requests related to displaying Arch elements should be filed with both workbenches.
A closer interaction between the workbenches is planed for future versions of FreeCAD. In those versions it is expected that long-standing issues be resolved, such as controlling the characteristics of lines and faces (line width, line color, face color, hatch patterns, and others).
- Elements: Wall, Structure, Curtain Wall, Window, Roof, Space, Stairs, Equipment, Frame, Fence, Truss, Profile, Pipe, Pipe Connector
- Reinforcements: Straight Rebar, U-Shape Rebar, L-Shape Rebar, Stirrup, Bent-Shape Rebar, Helical Rebar, Column Reinforcement, Beam Reinforcement, Slab Reinforcement, Footing Reinforcement, Custom Rebar
- Panels: Panel, Panel Cut, Panel Sheet, Nest
- Materials: Material, Multi-Material
- Organization: Building Part, Project, Site, Building, Level, External reference, Section Plane, Schedule
- Axes: Axis, Axes system, Grid
- Modification: Cut with plane, Cut with line, Add component, Remove component, Survey
- Utilities: Component, Clone component, Split Mesh, Mesh to Shape, Select non-manifold meshes, Remove Shape from Arch, Close Holes, Merge Walls, Check, Toggle IFC Brep flag, 3 Views from mesh, Create IFC spreadsheet, Toggle Subcomponents
- Additional: Preferences, Import Export Preferences (IFC, DAE, OBJ, JSON, 3DS, SHP), IfcOpenShell, IfcPlusPlus, Arch API
- Drafting: Line, Polyline, Fillet, Arc, Arc by 3 points, Circle, Ellipse, Rectangle, Polygon, B-spline, Cubic Bézier curve, Bézier curve, Point, Facebinder, ShapeString, Hatch
- Annotation: Text, Dimension, Label, Annotation styles, Annotation scale
- Modification: Move, Rotate, Scale, Mirror, Offset, Trimex, Stretch, Clone, Array, Polar array, Circular array, Path array, Path Link array, Point Array, Point Link array, Edit, Subelement highlight, Join, Split, Upgrade, Downgrade, Wire to B-spline, Draft to Sketch, Set slope, Flip dimension, Shape 2D view
- Draft Tray: Select Plane, Set style, Toggle construction mode, AutoGroup
- Snapping: Snap Lock, Snap Endpoint, Snap Midpoint, Snap Center, Snap Angle, Snap Intersection, Snap Perpendicular, Snap Extension, Snap Parallel, Snap Special, Snap Near, Snap Ortho, Snap Grid, Snap WorkingPlane, Snap Dimensions, Toggle Grid
- Miscellaneous: Apply current style, Layer, Manage layers, Add a new named group, Move to group, Select group, Add to Construction group, Toggle normal/wireframe display, Create working plane proxy, Heal, Toggle continue mode, Show snap toolbar
- Additional: Constraining, Pattern, Preferences, Import Export Preferences, DXF/DWG, SVG, OCA, DAT
- Context menu:
- Layer container: Merge layer duplicates, Add new layer
- Layer: Activate this layer, Select layer contents
- Working plane proxy: Write camera position, Write objects state
- Pages: Insert Default Page, Insert Page using Template, Redraw Page, Print All Pages
- Views: Insert View, Insert Active View, Insert Projection Group, Insert Section View, Insert Complex Section View, Insert Detail View, Insert Draft Workbench Object, Insert Arch Workbench Object, Insert Spreadsheet View, Move View, Share View, Project Shape
- Stacking: Move view to top of stack, Move view to bottom of stack, Move view up one level, Move view down one level
- Clips: Insert Clip Group, Add View to Clip Group, Remove View from Clip Group
- Decorations: Hatch Face using Image File, Apply Geometric Hatch to Face, Insert SVG Symbol, Insert Bitmap Image, Turn View Frames On/Off
- Dimensions: Insert Length Dimension, Insert Horizontal Dimension, Insert Vertical Dimension, Insert Radius Dimension, Insert Diameter Dimension, Insert Angle Dimension, Insert 3-Point Angle Dimension, Insert Horizontal Extent Dimension, Insert Vertical Extent Dimension, Link Dimension to 3D Geometry, Insert Balloon Annotation, Insert Axonometric Length Dimension, Insert Landmark Dimension, Adjust Geometric References of Dimension
- Annotations: Insert Annotation, Add Leaderline to View, Insert Rich Text Annotation, Add Cosmetic Vertex, Add Midpoint Vertices, Add Quadrant Vertices, Add Centerline to Faces, Add Centerline between 2 Lines, Add Centerline between 2 Points, Add Cosmetic Line Through 2 points, Remove Cosmetic Object, Change Appearance of Lines, Show/Hide Invisible Edges, Add Welding Information to Leader, Add Surface Finish Symbol, Add Hole or Shaft Tolerances
- Attributes and modifications: Select Line Attributes, Cascade Spacing and Delta Distance, Change Line Attributes, Extend Line, Shorten Line, Lock/Unlock View, Position Section View, Position Horizontal Chain Dimensions, Position Vertical Chain Dimensions, Position Oblique Chain Dimensions, Cascade Horizontal Dimensions, Cascade Vertical Dimensions, Cascade Oblique Dimensions, Calculate the area of selected faces, Customize format label
- Centerlines and threading: Add Circle Centerlines, Add Bolt Circle Centerlines, Add Cosmetic Thread Hole Side View, Add Cosmetic Thread Hole Bottom View, Add Cosmetic Thread Bolt Side View, Add Cosmetic Thread Bolt Bottom View, Add Cosmetic Intersection Vertex(es), Add Cosmetic Circle, Add Cosmetic Arc, Add Cosmetic Circle 3 Points, Add Cosmetic Parallel Line, Add Cosmetic Perpendicular Line
- Dimensions: Create Horizontal Chain Dimensions, Create Vertical Chain Dimensions, Create Oblique Chain Dimensions, Create Horizontal Coordinate Dimensions, Create Vertical Coordinate Dimensions, Create Oblique Coordinate Dimensions, Create Horizontal Chamfer Dimension, Create Vertical Chamfer Dimension, Create Arc Length Dimension, Insert '⌀' Prefix, Insert '〼' Prefix, Remove Prefix, Increase Decimal Places, Decrease Decimal Places
- Export: Export Page as SVG, Export Page as DXF
- Additional: Line Groups, Templates, Hatching, Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, Preferences
- Установка: Загрузка, Windows, Linux, Mac, Дополнительных компонентов, Docker, AppImage, Ubuntu Snap
- Базовая: О FreeCAD, Интерфейс, Навигация мыши, Методы выделения, Имя объекта, Настройки, Верстаки, Структура документа, Свойства, Помоги FreeCAD, Пожертвования
- Помощь: Учебники, Видео учебники
- Верстаки: Std Base, Arch, Draft, FEM, Inspection, Mesh, OpenSCAD, Part, PartDesign, Path, Points, Reverse Engineering, Robot, Sketcher, Spreadsheet, Start, Surface, TechDraw, Test Framework, Web