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    Fem-equation-elasticity.svg Уравнение гибкости

    Системное название
    FEM EquationElasticity
    Расположение в меню
    Solve → Уравнение гибкости
    Быстрые клавиши
    Представлено в версии
    См. также
    FEM tutorial


    This equation describes the mechanical properties of rigid bodies.

    For info about the math of the equation, see the Elmer models manual, section Linear Elasticity.


    1. After adding an Elmer solver as described here, select it in the tree view.
    2. Now either use the toolbar button FEM EquationElasticity.svg or the menu Solve → Mechanical equations → Elasticity equation.
    3. Change the equation's solver settings or the general solver settings if necessary.

    Note: For analyses of nonlinear deformation you must use the FEM EquationDeformation.svg Deformation equation (introduced in version 0.21). The Elasticity equation is only for linear deformations.

    Note: If you use more than one CPU core for the solver (introduced in version 0.21), you cannot use the default solver settings. However, using just one CPU and the default solver settings is in many cases faster than using several CPUs because the elasticity solver is only fast when ДанныеLinear Solver Type is set to Direct (the default, described here). For multi-CPU solving one can only use the ДанныеLinear Direct Method MUMPS. However, MUMPS is not freely available as a direct download.

    Solver Settings

    For the general solver settings, see the Elmer solver settings.

    The elasticity equation provides these special settings:

    • ДанныеCalculate Pangle: If the principal angles should be calculated.
    • ДанныеCalculate Principal: If all stresses should be calculated.
    • ДанныеCalculate Strains: If strains will be calculated. This will also calculate the stresses, even if ДанныеCalculate Principal or ДанныеCalculate Stresses is false.
    • ДанныеCalculate Stresses: If stresses should be calculated. Compared to ДанныеCalculate Principal the Tresca yield criterion and the principal stress will not be calculated.
    • ДанныеConstant Bulk System: See the Elmer manual for more info.
    • ДанныеDisplace Mesh: If mesh can be deformed. This is by default true and must be set to false for eigenfrequency analyses.
    • ДанныеFix Displacement: If displacements or forces are set. thereby ДанныеModel Lumping is automatically used.
    • ДанныеGeometric Stiffness: Considers the geometric stiffness of the body.
    • ДанныеIncompressible: Computation of incompressible material in connection with viscoelastic Maxwell material and a custom ДанныеVariable.
    • ДанныеMaxwell Material: Compute the viscoelastic material model.
    • ДанныеModel Lumping: Uses model lumping.
    • ДанныеModel Lumping Filename: File to save the results from the model lumping.
    • ДанныеStability Analysis: If true ДанныеEigen Analysis becomes a stability analysis (buckling analysis). Otherwise a modal analysis is performed.
    • ДанныеUpdate Transient System: See the Elmer manual for more info.
    • ДанныеVariable: The variable for the elasticity equation. Only change this if ДанныеIncompressible is set to true in accordance to the Elmer manual.


    • ДанныеEigen Analysis: If an eigen analysis should be performed (calculation of eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies).
    • ДанныеEigen System Complex: Should be true if the eigen system is complex. it must be false for a damped eigen value analyses.
    • ДанныеEigen System Compute Residuals: Computes residuals of the eigen value system.
    • ДанныеEigen System Damped: Set a damped eigen analysis. Can only be used if ДанныеLinear Solver Type is Iterative.
    • ДанныеEigen System Select: Selection of which eigenvalues are computed. Note that the selection of Largest* cause an infinite run for recent Elmer solver (as of August 2022).
    • ДанныеEigen System Tolerance: Convergence tolerance for iterative eigensystem solve. The default is 100 times the ДанныеLinear Tolerance.
    • ДанныеEigen System Values: The number of the highest eigenmode that should be calculated.


    • ДанныеPlane Stress: Computes solution according to the plane stress situation. Applies only for 2D geometry.

    Constraint Information

    The elasticity equation takes the following constraints into account if they are set:


    • Except for calculations in 2D, for all above constraints it is important that they act on a face. Constraints for 3D set to lines or vertices are not recognized by the Elmer solver.

    Eigenmode Analysis

    To perform an eigenmode analysis (calculation if the eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies), you need to

    1. Set ДанныеEigen Analysis: to true
    2. Set ДанныеDisplace Mesh: to false
    3. Set ДанныеEigen System Values: to the highest number of eigenmodes you are interested in. The smaller this number the shorter the solver runtime since higher modes can be omitted from computation.
    4. Add a constraint fixed and set at least one face of the body as fixed.
    5. Run the solver.

    It is highly recommended to use ДанныеLinear Solver Type set to Direct (the default) because this is much faster and the results are more accurate.

    Buckling Analysis

    To perform a buckling analysis, you need to do the same as for an Eigenmode Analysis, and additionally:

    • Set ДанныеStability Analysis to true


    The available results depend on the solver settings. If none of the ДанныеCalculate * settings was set to true, only the displacement is calculated. Otherwise also the corresponding results will be available. If ДанныеEigen Analysis was set to true all results will be available for every calculated eigenmode.

    If ДанныеEigen Analysis was set to true, the eigenfrequencies are output at the end of the solver log in the solver dialog and also in the document SolverElmerOutput that will be created in the tree view after the solver has finished.

    Note: The eigenmode displacement vector has an arbitrary value since the result is

    whereas is the eigenvector and is a complex number.