Ambiente de trabajo BIM

From FreeCAD Documentation
This page is a translated version of the page BIM Workbench and the translation is 5% complete.
Outdated translations are marked like this.
In v1.0 the BIM, Native-IFC and Arch Workbenches have been merged into the integrated BIM Workbench.
This page has been updated for that version.
El icono del Ambiente de trabajo BIM

Introducción

The BIM Workbench provides a modern Building Information Modelling workflow in FreeCAD, with fully parametric objects such as walls, beams, roofs, windows, stairs, pipes, and furniture. It supports Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) files, and the production of 2D plans in combination with the TechDraw Workbench.

The BIM Workbench imports tools from the Draft Workbench, as it uses its 2D objects to build 3D parametric objects. But it can also use solid shapes created with other workbenches like Part and PartDesign.

Véase Guía de migración a FreeCAD BIM para una rápida visión general si ya eres usuario de otra aplicación BIM.

Los desarrolladores de Draft, Arch y BIM también colaboran con la gran OSArch community, con el objetivo final de mejorar el diseño de los edificios mediante el uso de software totalmente libre.

Cómo empezar

Al iniciar el ambiente de trabajo BIM por primera vez, se muestra un cuadro de diálogo de bienvenida que ofrece una rápida visión general de cómo funciona el banco de trabajo y permite al usuario iniciar un tutorial dentro del juego. El diálogo de bienvenida también está disponible en el menú ayuda. Cuando la pantalla de bienvenida se cierra haciendo clic en OK, se mostrará el diálogo Configuración BIM, que permite al usuario configurar rápidamente algunas de las preferencias más comunes de FreeCAD relacionadas con BIM sin necesidad de navegar por las páginas completas de preferencias de FreeCAD.

La herramienta Configuración del proyecto BIM le permite configurar rápidamente un proyecto BIM rellenando algunos datos básicos sobre su proyecto. A continuación, puede utilizar, por ejemplo, las diferentes herramientas de dibujo 2D para trazar directrices y líneas de base, y luego utilizar las diferentes herramientas de modelado 3D para construir automáticamente objetos BIM 3D a partir de ellos. Una línea, por ejemplo, puede convertirse en un muro simplemente seleccionándola y pulsando el botón Muro.

Common building elements such as walls or columns are easily created by pressing the appropriate toolbar button and clicking points in the 3D view. They can be moved, rotated and edited once created. Most BIM elements are created on the current working plane, so a typical workflow involves placing the working plane first, then creating a BIM element. More complex elements can be created by drawing 2D elements first, then using one of the BIM tools to convert them into the desired element.

Elements of building projects can be organized using sites, buildings and levels, to reproduce what is commonly done in other BIM applications. In FreeCAD, however, such structures are not mandatory, and you are free to organize your model elements as you see fit, for example using groups.

2D drawings can be generated from a model to represent plan, section or elevation views. To generate such a drawing,section planes are placed in the model, to indicate where it should be cut or viewed from. Once the section planes are in place, two methods are possible:

  1. Create projected views in the document using shape views, then add all the necessary annotations such as texts and dimensions, then put all this on a page. This is the recommended way, as it offers more flexibility.
  2. Create a view on a page directly from the section plane. Then all the needed 2D annotations must either be added to the section plane, or done directly on the page. This is less flexible.

Finally, quantities schedules can be created using the schedule tool.

Si estás acostumbrado a otra aplicación BIM, consulta nuestra Tabla de compatibilidad de aplicaciones BIM para obtener tus notas al empezar con FreeCAD.

The in-game tutorial is an easy way to quickly get on track with the BIM workbench.

Herramientas

The BIM workbench gathers tools from several other FreeCAD workbenches, mainly Draft and Part, roughly reorganized in logical categories.

Además, si se instalan estos addons, las herramientas de Refuerzo (herramientas para barras de refuerzo adicionales), Fijadores (pernos y tornillos), Flamingo/Dodo (herramientas de estructura metálica y tuberías) y Biblioteca de piezas se incluyen automáticamente en el ambiente de trabajo BIM.

El ambiente de trabajo BIM también añade una serie de elementos en la barra de estado de FreeCAD, y un par de elementos del menú contextual', accesibles haciendo clic con el botón derecho en la vista 3D o en la vista de árbol.

2D Elaboración

Los objetos 2D se utilizan habitualmente como ayudas al dibujo, o para dibujar líneas y perfiles base sobre los que construir objetos BIM. También pueden utilizarse para dibujar símbolos y anotaciones en el modelo. Aparte de los bocetos, que utilizan su propio sistema de coordenadas, los objetos 2D se dibujarán en el plano de trabajo actual.

  • Sketch: Creates‎ a new sketch and enters sketch edit mode. Sketches are advanced 2D objects with constraints support.
  • Line: Creates a straight line.
  • Polyline: Creates a polyline (also called wire), a sequence of several connected line segments.
  • Circle: Creates a circle from a center and a radius.
  • Arc: Creates a circular arc from a center, a radius, a start angle and an aperture angle.
  • Arc by 3 points: Creates a circular arc from three points that define its circumference.
  • Fillet: Creates a fillet, a rounded corner, or a chamfer, a straight edge, between two Draft Lines.
  • Ellipse: Creates an ellipse from two points defining a rectangle in which the ellipse will fit.
  • Polygon: Creates a regular polygon from a center and a radius.
  • Rectangle: Creates a rectangle from two points.
  • B-spline: Creates a B-spline curve from several points.
  • Point: Creates a simple point.

3D/BIM

Los objetos 3D y BIM son los elementos del mundo real que compondrán tu proyecto BIM.

  • Project: Creates an IFC project including selected objects.
  • Site: Creates a site including selected objects.
  • Building: Creates a building including selected objects.
  • Level: Creates a floor including selected objects.
  • Space: Creates a space object.
  • Wall: Creates a wall from scratch or using a selected object as a base.
  • Curtain Wall: Creates a curtain wall from scratch or using a selected object as a base.
  • Column: Creates a vertical structural element at a given point, optionally using a selected object as a profile.
  • Beam: Creates a horizontal structural element between two points, optionally using a selected object as a profile.
  • Slab: Creates a flat structural element by extruding a selected flat object.
  • Door: Creates a Window object using door presets.
  • Window: Creates a window from scratch or using a selected object as a base.
  • Pipe: Creates a pipe.
  • Connector: Creates a corner or T-connection between 2 or 3 selected pipes.
  • Stairs: Creates a stairs object.
  • Roof: Creates a sloped roof from a selected wire.
  • Panel: Creates a panel object from a selected 2D object.
  • Frame: Creates a frame object from a selected layout.
  • Fence: Creates a fence object from a selected post and path.
  • Truss: Creates a truss from a selected line or from scratch.
  • Equipment: Creates an equipment or furniture object.
  • Reinforcement tools:
These tools, except the first, are only available if the Reinforcement Workbench has been installed.
  • Custom Rebar: Creates a custom reinforcement bar in a selected structural element using a sketch.
  • Straight Rebar: Creates a straight reinforcement bar in a selected structural element.
  • U-Shape Rebar: Creates a U-shape reinforcement bar in a selected structural element.
  • L-Shape Rebar: Creates an L-shape reinforcement bar in a selected structural element.
  • Stirrup: Creates a stirrup reinforcement bar in a selected structural element.
  • Bent-Shape Rebar: Creates a bent-shape reinforcement bar in a selected structural element.
  • Helical Rebar: Creates a helical reinforcement bar in a selected structural element.
  • Generic 3D tools:
These tools build generic 3D objects that can be turned or used into BIM components.
  • Profile: Creates a parametric 2D profile.
  • Box: Creates a box by specifying its dimensions graphically.
  • Shape builder...: Creates more complex shapes from various geometric primitives.
  • Facebinder: creates a surface object from selected faces.
  • Component: Creates a non-parametric Arch component.

Anotación

Anotaciones son objetos de ayuda visual que se pueden colocar dentro de su modelo. Pueden utilizarse para exportar su modelo directamente a un formato 2D como DXF, o reutilizarse al crear vistas 2D de su modelo con el TechDraw ambiente de trabajo.

  • Text: Creates a 2D text in a document or on a TechDraw page.
  • Vertical dimension: Creates a vertical dimension between two points or from a selected edge.
  • Leader: Creates a 2-segment polyline with an arrow at its end, to be used as a leader line in conjunction with a Text.
  • Label: Creates a multi-line text with a 2-segment leader line and an arrow.
  • Axis: Adds a 1-direction array of axes.
  • Axis System: Adds an axis system composed of several axes.
  • Grid: Adds a grid-like object.
  • Hatch: Creates hatches on the planar faces of a selected object.
  • View: Creates a view of the selected object(s) such as a Section plane or a Group containing the different elements of a 2D view.

Snapping

This menu contains the Draft Snap tools as well as the following tools:

Modify

  • Move: Moves or copies selected objects from one point to another.
  • Copy: Copies selected objects from one point to another.
  • Rotate: Rotates or copies selected objects around a center point by a given angle.
  • Clone: Clones selected objects.
  • Offset: Offsets each segment of a selected object over a given distance, or creates an offset copy of the selected object.
  • 2D Offset...: Constructs a parallel wire at a given distance from the original, or enlarges/shrinks a planar face (parametric version). This is the same tool as Part Offset2D.
  • Trimex: Trims or extends a selected object.
  • Scale: Scales or copies selected objects around a base point.
  • Stretch: Stretches objects by moving selected points.
  • Upgrade: Upgrades selected objects.
  • Array: Creates an orthogonal array from a selected object. It can optionally create a Link array.
  • Path array: Creates an array from a selected object by placing copies along a path.
  • Polar array: Creates an array from a selected object by placing copies along a circumference. It can optionally create a Link array.
  • Point array: Creates an array from a selected object by placing copies at the points from a point compound.
  • Mirror: Creates mirrored copies from selected objects.

Manage

  • BIM Setup...: Configures some of the FreeCAD preferences most commonly used for BIM.
  • Views manager: Manage the different views and levels of your project.
  • Schedule: Creates different types of schedules.
  • Annotation styles...: Allows you to define styles that affect the visual properties of annotation-like objects.

Utils

  • Move to Trash: Moves selected objects to a Trash group, which gets created if necessary
  • Split Mesh: Splits a selected mesh into separate components.
  • Mesh to Shape: Converts a mesh into a shape, unifying coplanar faces.
  • Close holes: Closes holes in a selected shape-based object.
  • Check: Check if the selected objects are solids and don't contain defects.
  • Survey: Enters or leaves surveying mode.
  • IFC Diff: Shows a visual diff between two IFC files
  • IFC explorer: Opens a tool to explore the structure of an IFC file prior to importing
  • Unclone: Makes a cloned object independent from its original object
  • Reextrude: Recreates an extrusion from a shape that has lost its parametric extrusion by selecting a base face
  • Panel tools:
  • Panel: Creates a panel object from a selected 2D object.
  • Panel Cut: Creates a 2D cut view from a panel.
  • Panel Sheet: Creates a 2D cut sheet including panel cuts or other 2D objects.
  • Nest: Allows to nest several flat objects inside a container shape.
  • Structure tools:
  • Structure: Creates a structural element from scratch or using a selected object as a base.
  • Nudge:

Status bar

The status bar contains a few buttons that allow to easily change different states:

  • Toggle Views: Shows or hides the BIM Views panel.
  • Cycle background: Cycles between vertical gradient, radial gradient and simple color background modes. This can be used to toggle between a dark background for modelling and a white background for 2D drawing.

Tree view context menu

TBD

3D view context menu

TBD

Obsolete tools

  • Arch 3Views: Creates top, front and side views from a mesh. Not available in version 1.0 and above.
  • Arch BuildingPart: Creates a building part including selected objects. Not available in version 1.0 and above. Use Arch Floor instead.
  • Arch CloneComponent: Produces Arch Components that are clones of selected Arch objects. Not available in version 1.0 and above. Use Draft Clone instead.
  • Arch MultiMaterial: Creates a multi-material and attributes it to selected objects, if any. Not available in version 1.0 and above. Use BIM Material instead.
  • Arch Project: Creates a project including selected objects. Not available in version 1.0 and above. Use BIM Project instead.
  • Arch SetMaterial: Creates a material and attributes it to selected objects, if any. Not available in version 1.0 and above. Not available in version 1.0 and above. Use BIM Material instead.

Preferences

  • Preferences: General preferences for the BIM Workbench.
  • Fine tuning: Extra parameters to fine-tune BIM behavior.

Working with IFC

The BIM workbench works natively with Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) files. Native means there is no more translation between the IFC contents and FreeCAD: The IFC contents are directly rendered in FreeCAD, and any change affects the IFC contents directly. Read more on NativeIFC.

If you don't plan to work with others, and have no need for IFC, you can still use the BIM workbench tools normally. You can still export your model to IFC anytime.

The old Arch IFC importer is disabled by default in FreeCAD, but still available from Python.

File formats

  • IFC: industry foundation classes
  • DAE: Collada mesh format
  • OBJ: OBJ mesh format (export only)
  • JSON: JavaScript Object Notation format (export only)
  • 3DS: 3DS format (import only)
  • SHP: GIS Shapefiles (import only)

API

The Arch module can be used in Python scripts and macros using the Arch Python API functions.

Tutoriales y aprendizaje

Example files